SEMINAR ON Fractal Robots

The birth of every technology is the result of the quest for
automation of some form of human work. This has led to many inventions
that have made life easier for us. Fractal Robot is a science that
promises to revolutionize technology in a way that has never been
witnessed before.
The principle behind Fractal Robots is very simple. You take some
cubic bricks made of metals and plastics, motorize them, put some
electronics inside them and control them with a computer and you get
machines that can change shape from one object to another. Almost
immediately, you can now build a home in a matter of minutes if you


            The subject of  this  work  is  image  compression  with  fractals. Today  JPEG  has  become  an  industrial  standard  in  image  compression. Further  researches  are  held  in  two  areas, wavelet  based  compression  and  fractal  image  compression. The  fractal  scheme  was  introduced  by  Michael F Barnsley  in  the  year  1945.His  idea  was  that  images  could  be  compactly  stored  as  iterated  functions  which  led  to  the  development  of  the  IFS  scheme  which  forms  the  basis  of  fractal  image  compression. Further  work  in  this  area  was  conducted  by  A.Jacquin, a  student  of  Barnsley  who  published  several  papers  on  this  subject. He  was  the  first  to  publish  an  efficient  algorithm  based  on  local  fractal  system.

Seminar tips

Outline of a typical presentation The first slide has the title, the date of the paper and/or the talk, and your affiliation. If you have a co-author, this is the time to make that clear.
Try to provide a perspective (a puzzle, an empirical regularity, an historical example, a casual observation, a curious gap in the literature, etc.) that you can use as a "hook" to get your audience's attention.
Give an outline of the presentation. It’s not necessary to read from the slide each of the steps of your talk (e.g., literature review, model, data, results, conclusion)--most of those present in the audience can read very well without your help. However, if you want to emphasize a particular part of your talk (e.g.. "I really want to get to the results so I'll skip quickly over the model during my talk. For those interested, the details are contained in my paper anyhow"), point this out right away.
Don't spend too much time on the literature review. The point of the review is to put your paper in perspective. Avoid getting into a long argument about whether you've cited the right group of papers or whether you have misrepresented a literature. You want to talk about your own work, not someone else's.
Present your main contributions right away. It's extremely important that you emphasize your contribution and distinguish what you've done that adds to the literature. You may want to repeat your list of contributions at the end of the talk, but don't try to keep the audience in suspense! Let them know your contribution immediately. This helps the audience focus on how to assess your paper and means that even those in the audience who leave early will have a good idea of what you want them to take away from your talk. 
If you have a model in your paper that is involved and difficult to follow, try to present a stripped down version in the presentation that you can use to develop the intuition for the main findings. Then you can say that in the paper you show that the intuition extends to a richer setting. 
If you put up a slide with an equation, make sure that you read through it so that the audience can follow the notation that you are using. If it's not standard (e.g., "F is a production function with inputs of capital and labor") try to give an economic interpretation of the equation. 
If you put up a graph, make sure that it's clear what's on the two axes and that you describe what the graph demonstrates. 
If you put up a table, make sure that you take one entry and explain clearly what it means in detail and then briefly indicate how to read the remaining entries.
You should have some planned 'slack' in your talk. That is material that you don't plan to cover but that you can include if for some reason you receive fewer or briefer questions than usual. Also, there may be parts of the talk where you anticipate that some audiences will want additional clarification and/or detail. Have it ready, but don't plan to use it unless it comes up in the talk.
Always keep your eyes on the time remaining. If you start to fall behind in your planned pace you should try to adjust your talk by eliminating the least important remaining parts of your talk. Always aim to finish a few minutes early.
End with your conclusion slide. If you have started or plan to begin related research, mention it. Then prepare to kick back and think beyond your paper if that's what the audience wants.

1). Memorizing - this is absolutely the worst way to keep track of material. People are preoccupied with trying to remember the words to say and not the ideas behind the words (or with the audience). As a result, normal voice inflection disappears. With memorizing, mental blocks become inevitable. With memorizing it is not a matter of "will" you forget; it's a matter of WHEN!
2). Reading from complete text - Listening to someone read a speech or presentation is hated by most people. People say, "If that's all they were going to do is read their speech, I could have read it myself." I'm sure many of us have experienced this at least once while attending a conference or two. Below are some reasons why I believe people read poorly:
3). Using Notes - This is the most common way for remembering material. Using notes is better than reading since the speaker can have normal voice inflection and make more effective eye contact. If your notes are on the lectern, you probably won't move very far from them. If notes are in your hand, you probably won't gesture very much.
4).Using Visual Aids As Notes - Simple visual aids can effectively serve as headings and subheadings. Speak to the heading. Say what you want to say and move on. If you forget something, that's okay; the audience will never know unless you tell them.
Practice creating just a few meaningful headings to use and practice using only these headings as your "cues". This will take practice, but practicing using only these few words will force you to better internalize your speech.
10 tips to take a seminar
A speech needs time to grow. Prepare for weeks, sleep on it, dream about it and let your ideas sink into your subconscious. Ask yourself questions, write down your thoughts, and keep adding new ideas. As you prepare every speech ask yourself the following questions.
In one concise sentence, what is the purpose of this speech?
1) Who is the audience? What is their main interest in this topic?
2) What do I really know and believe about this topic as it relates to this audience?
3) What additional research can I do?
4) What are the main points of this presentation?
5) What supporting information and stories can I use to support each of my main points?
6) What visual aids, if any, do I need?
7) Do I have an effective opening grabber?
8) In my final summary, how will I plan to tell them "What's In It For Me?"
9) Have I polished and prepared the language and words I will use?
10) Have I taken care of the little details that will help me speak more confidently?

1) Please communicate clearly with your audience in this area - your presentation should demonstrate that you have evaluated the scientific merits or faults (as discussed in this course) of the research you are presenting, at least for Round 1 (where you present on ascientific paper)
2) For Round 2, please present the results of your project (either the 3 or 9 credit honors project or guided readings) in a way that makes it clear you have developed one or more hypotheses, deduced predictions from it/them, and tested it/them. If you are doing guided readings, you can present your work by beginning with the question or hypothesis that motivated the readings you did. Then, describe the scientific results you found in those readings and whether the results supported your initial hypothesis.
Posture and organization
1) Be straightforward and logical, think of it as telling a story - you want a less expert audience to be able to follow along
2) Be certain to start with a brief introductory summary of what you will cover (outline!!!)
3) Provide sufficient background so that the audience can appreciate the significance of the paper (who cares???)
4) Use visual aids as appropriate, flow-charts can be very helpful when explaining methods and experimental designs
5) At the close of your seminar be certain to summarize the main conclusions and provide the audience with the most significant point(s) from the seminar* (don't leave the audience wondering why they sat through the seminar)
1) Speak clearly and 'speak up' - project your voice without shouting at your audience
2) State the objectives, hypotheses and rationale of study right at the start of the talk
3) Be certain to relate the seminar to the larger context (Can we predict something better because this study was conducted? Do have better knowledge of a basic pattern in nature?)
4) Your seminar should be understandable to a general audience (remember: you have read paper or done the research - the audience won't have the same degree of preparation as you)
5) Be certain that you understand the work yourself and do not use a word that you could not explain! (avoid "bafflegab", especially if you don't get it yourself).

Fluorescent Multi-layer Disc

Requirements for removable media storage devices (RMSDs) used with personal computers have changed significantly since the introduction of the floppy disk in 1971. At one time, desktop computers depended on floppy disks for all of their storage requirements. Even with the advent of multigigabyte hard drives, floppy disks and other RMSDs are still an integral part of most computer systems, providing.

Transport between computers for data files and software
Backup to preserve data from the hard dive
A way to load the operating system software in the event of a hard failure.

            Data storage devices currently come in a variety of different capacities, access time, data transfer rate and cost per Gigabyte. The best overall performance figures are currently achieved using hard disk drives (HDD), which can be integrated into RAID systems (reliable arrays of inexpensive drives) at costs of $10 per GByte (1999). Optical disc drives (ODD) and tapes can be configured in the form of jukeboxes and tape libraries, with cost of a few dollars per GByte for the removable media. However, the complex mechanical library mechanism serves to limit data access time to several seconds and affects the reliability adversely.

            Most information is still stored in non-electronic form, with very slow access and excessive costs (e.g., text on paper, at a cost of $10 000 per GByte).

            Some RMSD options available today are approaching the performance, capacity, and cost of hard-disk drives. Considerations for selecting an RMSD include capacity, speed, convenience, durability, data availability, and backward-compatibility. Technology options used to read and write data include.

Magnetic formats that use magnetic particles and magnetic fields.

Optical formats that use laser light and optical sensors.

            Magneto-optical and magneto-optical hybrids that use a combination of magnetic and optical properties to increase storage capacity.

            The introduction of the Fluorescent Multi-layer Disc (FMD) smashes the barriers of existing data storage formats. Depending on the application and the market requirements, the first generation of 120mm (CD Sized) FMD ROM discs will hold 20 - 100 GigaBytes of pre -recorded data on 12 — 30 data layers with a total thickness of under 2mm.In comparison, a standard DVD disc holds just 4.7 gigabytes. With C3D’s (Constellation 3D) proprietary parallel reading and writing technology, data transfer speeds can exceed 1 gigabit per second, again depending on the application and market need.


FireWire, originally developed by  Apple Computer, Inc is a cross platform implementation of the high speed  serial data bus –define by the  IEEE 1394-1995 [FireWire 400],IEEE 1394a-2000 [FireWire 800]  and IEEE  1394b standards-that move large amounts of data between computers and peripheral  devices. Its features simplified cabling, hot swapping and transfer speeds of upto 800 megabits per second. FireWire is a high-speed serial input/output (I/O) technology for connecting peripheral devices to a computer or to each other. It is one of the fastest peripheral standards ever developed and now, at 800 megabits per second (Mbps), its even faster .Based on Apple-developed technology, FireWire was adopted in 1995 as an official industry standard (IEEE 1394) for cross-platform peripheral connectivity. By providing a high-bandwidth, easy-to-use I/O technology, FireWire inspired a new generation of consumer electronics devices from many companies, including Canon, Epson, HP, Iomega, JVC, LaCie, Maxtor, Mitsubishi, Matsushita (Panasonic), Pioneer, Samsung, Sony and Texas Instruments. Products such as DV camcorders, portable external disk drives and MP3 players like the Apple iPod would not be as popular as they are today with-out FireWire. FireWire has also been a boon to professional users because of the high-speed connectivity it has brought to audio and video production systems. In 2001, the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences presented Apple with an Emmy award in recognition of the contributions made by FireWire to the television industry. Now FireWire 800, the next generation of FireWire technology, promises to spur the development of more innovative high-performance devices and applications. FireWire800 (an implementation of the IEEE 1394b standard approved in 2002) doubles the throughput of the original technology, dramatically increases the maximum distance of FireWire connections, and supports many new types of cabling. This technology brief describes the advantages of FireWire 800 and some of the applications for which it is ideally suited.


A ferroelectric memory cell consists of a ferroelectric capacitor and a MOS transistor. Its construction is similar to the storage cell of a DRAM. The difference is in the dielectric properties of the material between the capacitor's electrodes. This material has a high dielectric constant and can be polarized by an electric field. The polarisation remains until it gets reversed by an opposite electrical field. This makes the memory non-volatile. Note that ferroelectric material, despite its name, does not necessarily contain iron. The most well-known ferroelectric substance is BaTiO3.
A Ferroelectric memory cell consists of a ferroelectric capacitor and a MOS transistor. Its construction is similar to the storage cell of a DRAM. The difference is in the dielectric properties of the material between the capacitor's electrodes. This material has a high dielectric constant and can be polarized by an electric field. The polarisation remains until it gets reversed by an opposite electrical field. This makes the memory non-volatile.
Data is read by applying an electric field to the capacitor. If this switches the cell into the opposite state (flipping over the electrical dipoles in the ferroelectric material) then more charge is moved than if the cell was not flipped. This can be detected and amplified by sense amplifiers. Reading destroys the contents of a cell which must therefore be written back after a read. This is similar to the precharge operation in DRAM, though it only needs to be done after a read rather than periodically as with DRAM refresh.
FRAM is found mainly in consumer devices and because of its low power requirements, could also be used in devices that only need to activate for brief periods. FRAM allows systems to retain information even when power is lost, without resorting to batteries, EEPROM, or flash. Access times are the same as for standard SRAM, so there's no delay-at-write access as there is for EEPROM or flash. In addition, the number of write cycles supported by the FRAM components is nearly unlimited—up to 10 billion read/writes. FRAM combines the advantages of SRAM - writing is roughly as fast as reading, and EPROM - non-volatility and in-circuit programmability

Face Recognition Technology

The information age is quickly revolutionizing the way transactions are completed. Everyday actions are increasingly being handled electronically, instead of with pencil and paper or face to face. This growth in electronic transactions has resulted in a greater demand for fast and accurate user identification and authentication. Access codes for buildings, banks accounts and computer systems often use PIN's for identification and security clearences.
Using the proper PIN gains access, but the user of the PIN is not verified. When credit and ATM cards are lost or stolen, an unauthorized user can often come up with the correct personal codes. Despite warning, many people continue to choose easily guessed PIN's  and passwords: birthdays, phone numbers and social security numbers. Recent cases of identity theft have hightened the nee for methods to prove that someone is truly who he/she claims to be.
Face recognition technology may solve this problem since a face is undeniably connected to its owner expect in the case of identical twins. Its nontransferable. The system can then compare scans to records stored in a central or local database or even on a smart card.

Bhima's son like Gadotkach-like skeleton found. The discovery was made by National Geographic Team

Bhima's son like Gadotkach-like skeleton found. The discovery was made by National Geographic Team

source Incredible pics