DNA computer

Computer chip manufacturers are furiously racing to make the next microprocessor that will topple speed records. Sooner or later, though, this competition is bound to hit a wall. Microprocessors made of silicon will eventually reach their limits of speed and miniaturization. Chip makers need a new material to produce faster computing speeds.
 Millions of natural supercomputers exist inside living organisms, including your body. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules, the material our genes are made of, have the potential to perform calculations many times faster than the world's most powerful human-built computers. DNA might one day be integrated into a computer chip to create a so-called biochip that will push computers even faster. DNA molecules have already been harnessed to perform complex mathematical problems.
While still in their infancy, DNA computers will be capable of storing billions of times more data than your personal computer. DNA can be used to calculate complex mathematical problems. However, this early DNA computer is far from challenging silicon-based computers in terms of speed. The Rochester team's DNA logic gates are the first step toward creating a computer that has a structure similar to that of an electronic PC. Instead of using electrical signals to perform logical operations, these DNA logic gates rely on DNA code. They detect fragments of genetic material as input, splice together these fragments and form a single output


Smart pixels, the integration of photo detector arrays and processing electronics on a single semiconductor chip, have been driven by its capability to perform parallel processing of large pixelated images and in real-time reduce a complex image into a manageable stream of signals that can be brought off-chip. In recent years, optical modulators and emitters have been integrated with photo detectors and on-chip electronics. The potential uses for smart pixels are almost as varied as are the designs. They can be used for image processing, data processing, communications, and that special sub-niche of communications, computer networking. While no immediate commercial use for smart pixels has risen to the forefront, smart pixels systems are utilizing technology developed for a wide variety of other commercial applications. As lasers, video displays, optoelectronics and other related technologies continue to progress, it is inevitable that smart pixels will continue to integrate along with these commercially successful technologies.
The name smart pixel is combination of two ideas, "pixel" is an image processing term denoting a small part, or quantized fragment of an image, the word "smart" is coined from standard electronics and reflects the presence of logic circuits. Together they describe a myriad of devices. These smart pixels can be almost entirely optical in nature, perhaps using the non-linear optical properties of a material to manipulate optical data, or they can be mainly electronic, for instance a photo receiver coupled with some electronic switching.

Shakespeare Love Quotes - 10

 Shakespeare Love Quotes,Shakespeare Love Quotes,Shakespeare Love Quotes

1,Now join your hands, and with your hands your hearts.

2,They do not love that do not show their love.
The course of true love never did run smooth.
Love is a familiar. Love is a devil. There is no evil angel but Love.

3,For thy sweet love remember'd such wealth brings,
That then I scorn to change my state with kings.

4,I'll follow you and make a heaven out of hell, and I'll die by your hand which I love so well.

5,In thy face I see honor, truth and loyalty.

6,Now join your hands, and with your hands your hearts.

7,Love goes toward love.

8,Love is not love
Which alters when it alteration finds,
Or Bends with the remover to remove.
O, no! It is an ever-fixed mark,
That looks on tempests and is never shaken.
It is the star to every wandering bark,
whose worth's unknown, although his height be taken.

9,Love sought is good, but given unsought, is better.

10,Love is a smoke raised with the fume of sighs,
Being purged, a fire sparkling in lovers' eyes,
Being vexed, a sea nourished with lovers' tears.
What is it else? A madness most discreet,
A choking gall and a preserving sweet.


After more than a century of research and development, the internal combustion (IC) engine is nearing both perfection and obsolescence: engineers continue to explore the outer limits of IC efficiency and performance, but advancements in fuel economy and emissions have effectively stalled. While many IC vehicles meet Low Emissions Vehicle standards, these will give way to new, stricter government regulations in the very near future. With limited room for improvement, automobile manufacturers have begun full-scale development of alternative power vehicles. Still, manufacturers are loath to scrap a century of development and billions or possibly even trillions of dollars in IC infrastructure, especially for technologies with no history of commercial success. Thus, the ideal interim solution is to further optimize the overall efficiency of IC vehicles.
One potential solution to this fuel economy dilemma is the continuously variable transmission (CVT), an old idea that has only recently become a bastion of hope to automakers. CVTs could potentially allow IC vehicles to meet the first wave of new fuel regulations while development of hybrid electric and fuel cell vehicles continues. Rather than selecting one of four or five gears, a CVT constantly changes its gear ratio to optimize engine efficiency with a perfectly smooth torque-speed curve. This improves both gas mileage and acceleration compared to traditional transmissions.
The fundamental theory behind CVTs has undeniable potential, but lax fuel regulations and booming sales in recent years have given manufacturers a sense of complacency: if consumers are buying millions of cars with conventional transmissions, why spend billions to develop and manufacture CVTs?
Although CVTs have been used in automobiles for decades, limited torque capabilities and questionable reliability have inhibited their growth. Today, however, ongoing CVT research has led to ever-more robust transmissions, and thus ever-more-diverse automotive applications. As CVT development continues, manufacturing costs will be further reduced and performance will continue to increase, which will in turn increase the demand for further development. This cycle of improvement will ultimately give CVTs a solid foundation in the world’s automotive infrastructure.


There are two main limitations of using conventional x-rays to examine internal structures of the body. Firstly superimpositions of the 3-dimensional information onto a single plane make diagnosis confusing and often difficult. Secondly the photographic film usually used for making radiographs has a limited dynamic range and therefore only object that have large variation in the x-ray absorption relative to their surroundings will cause sufficient contrast differences on the film to be distinguished by the eye. Thus the details of bony structures can be seen, it is difficult to discern the shape and composition of soft tissue organ accurately.
CT uses special x-ray equipment to obtain image data from different angles around a body and then shows a cross section of body tissues and organs. i.e., it can show several types of tissue-lung,bone,soft tissue and blood vessel with great clarity. CT of the body is a patient friendly exam that involves little radiation exposure
In CT scanning, the image is reconstructed from a large number of absorption profiles taken at regular angular intervals around a slice, each profile being made up from a parallel set of absorption values through the object. ie, CT also passes x-rays through the body of the patient but the detection method is usually electronic in nature, and the data is converted from analog signal to digital impulses in an AD converter. This digital representation of the x-ray intensity is fed in to a computer, which then reconstruct an image.
The method of doing of tomography uses an x-ray detector which translates which translates linearly on a track across the x-ray beam, and when the end of the scan is reached the x-ray tube and the detector are rotated to a new angle and the linear motion is repeated. The latest generation of CT machines use a ‘fan-beam’ geometry with an array of detectors which simultaneously detect x-rays on a number of different paths through the patient.


The term “Cryogenics” originates from Greek word which means creation or production by means of cold. As prices for energy and raw materials rise and concern for the environment makes safe waste disposal difficult and Costly, resource recovery becomes a vital matter for today’s business. Cryogenic grinding technology can efficiently grind most tough materials and can also   facilitate Cryogenic recycling of tough composite materials and multi component scrap. The heart of this technology is the CRYO-GRIND SYSTEM. It employs a cryogenic process to embrittle and grind materials to achieve consistent particle size for a wide range of products. The cryogenic process also has a unique capability for recycling difficult to separate composite materials.

Cryogenic grinding is a method of powdering herbs at sub-zero temperatures ranging from 0 to minus 70°F. The herbs are frozen with liquid nitrogen as they are being ground. This process does not damage or alter the chemical composition of the plant in any way. Normal grinding processes which do not use a cooling system can reach up to 200°F. These high temperatures can reduce volatile components and heat-sensitive constituents in herbs. The cryogenic grinding process starts with air-dried herbs, rather than freeze-dried herbs.

Solid materials are ground or pulverized by way of hammer mills, attrition mills, granulators or other equipment. A smaller particle size is usually needed to enhance the further processing of the solid, as in mixing with other materials. A finer particle also helps in melting of rubber and plastics for molding. However, many materials are either very soft or very tough at room temperatures. By cooling to cryogenic temperatures with liquid nitrogen, these may be embrittled and easily fractured into small particles.

 A scientifically controlled study using four herbs was conducted at Frontier Herbs in the Fall of 1996, comparing cryogenic grinding methods with normal grinding methods. The herbs tested included feverfew, goldenseal, valerian and echinacea. In all cases the cryogenically ground herb contained greater amounts of the constituents tested. Feverfew herb showed the greatest difference, with the cryogenically ground herb containing 21.8% higher levels of parthenolide, the primary active constituent. Valerian root showed an 18.7% increase in valerenic acid when cryogenically ground. Goldenseal root showed a 16.4% increase in berberine and 10.7% increase in hydrastine. Lastly, Echinacea purpurea root showed a 12.1% increase in total phenolic content in the cryogenically ground root. Test results were obtained by HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) methods.

Cryogenic grinding was shown to significantly affect active constituent levels in herbs. Test results showed an average increase of 15.6% in constituents tested in four medicinal herbs when they were ground cryogenically. The range was 10.7% to 21.8%, indicating that some herbs are affected more than others by the temperatures at which they're ground.

Alam ara(first sound movie in india)

March 14, 1931 was a historic day for Indian cinema. Ardeshir Irani of Imperial Movietone released Alam Ara, the first full-length Indian talkie film at the Majestic cinema in Bombay. This film very effectively broke the golden silent era and laid a milestone that marked the steeping into the new talkie era as well as rang the death knell to silent films.
However, it was the Warner Bros who had only a few years earlier launched the sound era with Don Juan (1926) starring Mary Astor with synchronised  musical score and sound effects and followed by Jazz Singer. But it was Lights of New York (1928) that was the first talkies film followed closely by Hitchcock’s Blackmail (Britain) and Rene Clair’s Sous Les Toits Paris (France). Meanwhile, India’s first synchronised film Melody of Love was by Madan Theatres in 1929.
Alam Ara: 124 minutes; black & white; Hindi-Urdu
Director:   Ardeshir Irani
Production company: Imperial Movietone
Scriptwriter: Joseph David
Cinematography: Adi M. Irani, Wilford Deming
Music:  Ferozshah M. Mistri, B. Irani
Lead players: Master Vithal, Miss Zubeida, Jilloo, Sushila, Prithviraj Kapoor, Elizer,   Wazir Mohammad Khan, Jagdish Sethi,  LV Prasad


Mobile computing has been the buzzword for quite a long time. Mobile computing devices like laptops, web slates & notebook PCs are becoming common nowadays. The heart of every PC whether a desktop or mobile PC is the microprocessor. Several microprocessors are available in the market for desktop PCs from companies like Intel, AMD, and Cyrix etc. The mobile computing market has never had a microprocessor specifically designed for it. The microprocessors used in mobile PCs are optimized versions of the desktop PC microprocessor. Mobile computing makes very different demands on processors than desktop computing, yet up until now, mobile x86 platforms have simply made do with the same old processors originally designed for desktops. Those processors consume lots of power, and they get very hot. When you're on the go, a power-hungry processor means you have to pay a price: run out of power before you've finished, run more slowly and lose application performance, or run through the airport with pounds of extra batteries. A hot processor also needs fans to cool it; making the resulting mobile computer bigger, clunkier and noisier. A newly designed microprocessor with low power consumption will still be rejected by the market if the performance is poor. So any attempt in this regard must have a proper 'performance-power' balance to ensure commercial success. A newly designed microprocessor must be fully x86 compatible that is they should run x86 applications just like conventional x86 microprocessors since most of the presently available software’s have been designed to work on x86 platform.
Crusoe is the new microprocessor which has been designed specially for the mobile computing market. It has been designed after considering the above mentioned constraints. This microprocessor was developed by a small Silicon Valley startup company called Transmeta Corp. after five years of secret toil at an expenditure of $100 million. The concept of Crusoe is well understood from the simple sketch of the processor architecture, called 'amoeba’. In this concept, the x86-architecture is an ill-defined amoeba containing features like segmentation, ASCII arithmetic, variable-length instructions etc. The amoeba explained how a traditional microprocessor was, in their design, to be divided up into hardware and software.
Thus Crusoe was conceptualized as a hybrid microprocessor that is it has a software part and a hardware part with the software layer surrounding the hardware unit. The role of software is to act as an emulator to translate x86 binaries into native code at run time. Crusoe is a 128-bit microprocessor fabricated using the CMOS process. The chip's design is based on a technique called VLIW to ensure design simplicity and high performance. Besides this it also uses Transmeta's two patented technologies, namely, Code Morphing Software and Longrun Power Management. It is a highly integrated processor available in different versions for different market segments.


Compact peripheral component interconnect (CPCI) is an adaptation of the peripheral component interconnect (PCI) specification for industrial computer applications requiring a smaller, more robust mechanical form factor than the one defined for the desktop. CompactPCI is an open standard supported by the PCI Industrial Computer Manufacturer’s Group (PICMG). CompactPCI is best suited for small, high-speed industrial computing applications where transfers occur between a number of high-speed cards.
It is a high-performance industrial bus that uses the Eurocard form factor and is fully compatible with the Enterprise Computer Telephony Forum(ECTF) computer telephony (CT) Bus™ H.110 standard specification. CompactPCI products make it possible for original equipment manufacturers (OEM), integrators, and resellers to build powerful and cost-effective solutions for telco networks, while using fewer development resources. CompactPCI products let developers scale their applications to the size, performance, maintenance, and reliability demands of telco environments by supporting the CT Bus, hot swap, administrative tools such as simple network management protocol (SNMP), and extensive system diagnostics. The move toward open, standards-based systems has revolutionized the computer telephony (CT) industry. There are a number of reasons for these changes. Open systems have benefited from improvements in personal computer (PC) hardware and software, as well as from advances in digital signal processing (DSP) technology. As a result, flexible, high performance systems are scalable to thousands of ports while remaining cost effective for use in telco networks. In addition, fault-tolerant chassis, distributed software architecture, and N+1 redundancy have succeeded in meeting the demanding reliability requirements of network operators.
One of the remaining hurdles facing open CT systems is serviceability. CT systems used in public networks must be extremely reliable and easy to repair without system downtime. In addition, network operation requires first-rate administrative and diagnostic capabilities to keep services up and running.

corDECT Wireless in Local Loop System

corDECT is an advanced, field proven, Wireless Access System developed by Midas Communication Technologies and the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, in association with Analog Devices Inc., USA.
corDECT provides a complete wireless access solution for new and expanding telecommunication networks with seamless integration of both voice and Internet services. It is the only cost-effective Wireless Local Loop (WLL) system in the world today that provides simultaneous toll-quality voice and 35 or 70 kbps Internet access to wireless subscribers.
corDECT is based on the DECT standard specification from the European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI). In addition, it incorporates new concepts and innovative designs brought about by the collaboration of a leading R & D company, a renowned university, and a global semiconductor manufacturer. This alliance has resulted in many breakthrough concepts including that of an Access Network that segregates voice and Internet traffic and delivers each, in the most efficient manner, to the telephone network and the Internet respectively, without the one choking the other.

Earthquake hits Japan:::::triggers Tsunami

Japan was hit by a massive earthquake the measured 8.9 on the Richter scale, on March 11. This was followed by a 10 meters high Tsunami wave that washed away Northern Japan. The nearest city to the epicenter is the coastal city of Honshu, 130 km (80 miles) from the quake center. Japan's capital city Tokyo is situated 373 km (231 miles) away. Take a look at some photos.

·         The resulting tsunami, with waves in excess of 10 meters in height, struck the port of Sendai and devastated a large part of North East Japan
·         This is reported to be the worst earthquake in 140 years
·         All public transport, rail, air, port and mobile services were shut down. Schools are providing shelter to stranded commuters
·         Nuclear power emergency declared. Five plants shut down. A fire broke out at Oganawa nuclear plant in NE Japan and has since been extinguished
·         The Yen dropped, Nikkei closed at a five-week low and all other world markets are trading lower than usual.
·         Honda has suspended operations at its assembly plant in Saitama, near Tokyo

·         As many as 80 buildings, many of them in Tokyo, burst into flames as a result of the quake
·         4 million households have been deprived of electricity
·         Tsunami alert along the Pacific Coast; Hawaii experiences a 4.9 magnitude quake; Taiwan, Russia, Chile still on high alert
·         Hawaii, Russia and Taiwan have evacuated people from the danger areas
·         US, Britain and India have offered to help the Japanese government. The Indian embassy has also assured that 25,000 Indians in Japan are safe
·        The official toll stands at 59; true figures are expected only once communications are restored

Harley-Davidson Bikes(small introduction)

Harley-Davidson often abbreviated H-D or Harley, is an American motorcycle manufacturer. Founded in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, during the first decade of the 20th century, it was one of two major American motorcycle manufacturers to survive the Great Depression. Harley-Davidson also survived a period of poor quality control and competition from Japanese manufacturers.
The company sells heavyweight (over 750 cc) motorcycles designed for cruising on the highway. Harley-Davidson motorcycles (popularly known as "Harleys") have a distinctive design and exhaust note. They are especially noted for the tradition of heavy customization that gave rise to the chopper style of motorcycle. Except for the modern VRSC model family, current Harley-Davidson motorcycles reflect the styles of classic Harley designs. Harley-Davidson's attempts to establish itself in the light motorcycle market have met with limited success and have largely been abandoned since the 1978 sale of its Italian Aermacchi subsidiary.
Harley-Davidson sustains a loyal brand community which keeps active through clubs, events, and a museum. Licensing of the Harley-Davidson logo accounts for almost 5% of the company's net revenue.

Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP)

Technological advances are reshaping the face of manufacturing, creating paperless manufacturing environments in which computer automated process planning (CAPP) will play a preeminent role. The two reasons for this effect are: Costs are declining, which encourages partnerships between CAD and CAPP developers and access to manufacturing data is becoming easier to accomplish in multivendor environments. This is primarily due to increasing use of LANs; IGES and the like are facilitating transfer of data from one point to another on the network; and relational databases (RDBs) and associated structured query language (SQL) allow distributed data processing and data access.
With the introduction of computers in design and manufacturing, the process planning part needed to be automated. The shop trained people who were familiar with the details of machining and other processes were gradually retiring and these people would be unavailable in the future to do process planning. An alternative way of accomplishing this function was needed and Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP) was the alternative. Computer aided process planning was usually considered to be a part of computer aided manufacturing. However computer aided manufacturing was a standalone system. In fact a synergy results when CAM is combined with CAD to create a CAD/CAM. In such a system CAPP becomes the direct connection between design and manufacturing.  
Moreover, the reliable knowledge based computer-aided process planning application¾Met CAPP software looks for the least costly plan capable of producing the design and continuously generates and evaluates the plans until it is evident that non of the remaining plans will be any better than the best one seen so far. The goal is to find a useful reliable solution to a real manufacturing problem in a safer environment. If alternate plans exist, rating including safer conditions is used to select the best plans

Circuit and Safety Analysis System (CSAS)

Success is all about being in the right place at the right time ….. and the axiom is a guiding principle for designers of  motorsport circuits. To avoid problems you need know where and when things are likely to go wrong before cars turn a wheel –and anticipating accidents is a science.
Take barriers, for example .there is little point erecting them in the wrong place –but predicting the right place is a black art. The FIA has developed bespoke software, the Circuit and Safety Analysis System (CSAS), to predict problem areas on F1 circuits.
Where and when cars leave circuits is due to the complex interaction between their design, the driver’s reaction and the specific configuration of the track, and the CSAS allows the input of many variables-lap speeds ,engine power curves, car weight changes, aerodynamic characteristics etc –to predict how cars may leave the circuit at particular places. The variables are complex. The impact point of a car continuing in a straight line at a corner is easy to predict, but if the driver has any remaining control and alters the car’s trajectory, or if a mechanical fault introduces fresh variables, its final destination is tricky to model.
Modern tyre barriers are built of road tyres with plastic tubes sandwiched between them. The side facing the track is covered with conveyor belting to prevent wheels becoming snagged and distorting the barrier. The whole provides a deformable ‘cushion’ a principle that has found its way to civilian roads. Barriers made of air filled cells, currently under investigation may be the final answer. Another important safety factor is the road surface. Racing circuits are at the cutting edge of surface technology, experimenting with new materials for optimum performance.

Computer Clothing

Wearable  computer  comprises  of  a  computer  built  within  an  ordinary  clothing. This  transformation  allows  it  to  be   worn  constantly,  with  the  goal  of  becoming  a  seamless  extension  of  body  and  mind. Equipped  with  various  sensors  which  measure  heart rate,  respiration,  footstep rate  etc,  the  apparatus  can  function  as  a  personal  safety  device  for  reducing  crime,  as  well  as  personal  health  monitor  for  improving   health care  by  encouraging  individuals  to  take  an  active  role  in  diagnosis  and  body  maintenance.  The  ‘wearable  computer’  apparatus  is  embedded   within  nontransparent   clothing  which  provides  shielding.  Electronic  circuits  are  built  entirely  out  of  textiles  to  distribute  data  and  power  and  perform  touch  sensing.  These  circuits  are  passive  components  sewn  from  conductive  yarns  as  well  as  conventional  components  to  create  interactive  electronic  devices,  such    as  musical  keyboards  and  graphic  input  surfaces.

Airbus A380

Airbus’ 21st Century flagship A380 has been revolutionising air transport since its service introduction in 2007, bringing unmatched performance and economic efficiency to airline customers worldwide.

The double-deck A380 is the world’s largest commercial aircraft flying today, with capacity to carry 525 passengers in a comfortable three-class configuration, and up to  853 in a single-class configuration that provides wider seats than its competitor. Overall, the A380’s two decks offer 50 per cent more floor surface than any other high-capacity aircraft.

With its range of 8,300 nautical miles, the A380 is the ideal solution to alleviate traffic congestion at busy airports, while coping with market growth.  It has two full-length passenger levels with true widebody dimensions: a main deck and an upper deck, which are linked by fixed stairs forward and aft.

Blue ray DVD

Tokyo Japan, February 19, 2002: Nine leading companies today announced that they have jointly established the basic specifications for a next generation large capacity optical disc video recording format called "Blu-ray Disc". The Blu-ray Disc enables the recording, rewriting and play back of up to 27 gigabytes (GB) of data on a single sided single layer 12cm CD/DVD size disc using a 405nm blue-violet laser.
By employing a short wavelength blue violet laser, the Blu-ray Disc successfully minimizes its beam spot size by making the numerical aperture (NA) on a field lens that converges the laser 0.85. In addition, by using a disc structure with a 0.1mm optical transmittance protection layer, the Blu-ray Disc diminishes aberration caused by disc tilt. This also allows for disc better readout and an increased recording density. The Blu-ray Disc's tracking pitch is reduced to 0.32um, almost half of that of a regular DVD, achieving up to 27 GB high-density recording on a single sided disc.
Because the Blu-ray Disc utilizes global standard "MPEG-2 Transport Stream" compression technology highly compatible with digital broadcasting for video recording, a wide range of content can be recorded. It is possible for the Blu-ray Disc to record digital high definition broadcasting while maintaining high quality and other data simultaneously with video data if they are received together. In addition, the adoption of a unique ID written on a Blu-ray Disc realizes high quality copyright protection functions.
The Blu-ray Disc is a technology platform that can store sound and video while maintaining high quality and also access the stored content in an easy-to-use way. This will be important in the coming broadband era as content distribution becomes increasingly diversified. The nine companies involved in the announcement will respectively develop products that take full advantage of Blu-ray Disc's large capacity and high-speed data transfer rate. They are also aiming to further enhance the appeal of the new format through developing a larger capacity, such as over 30GB on a single sided single layer disc and over 50GB on a single sided double layer disc. Adoption of the Blu-ray Disc in a variety of applications including PC data storage and high definition video software is being considered.

Optical Computing Technology

Optical computing was a hot research area in 1980.But the work tapered off due to materials limitations that prevented optochips from getting small enough and cheap enough beyond laboratory curiosities. Now, optical computers are back with advances in self-assembled conducting organic polymers that promise super-tiny of all optical chips.

Optical computing technology is, in general, developing in two directions. One approach is to build computers that have the same architecture as present day computers but using optics that is Electro optical hybrids. Another approach is to generate a completely new kind of computer, which can perform all functional operations in optical mode. In recent years, a number of devices that can ultimately lead us to real optical computers have already been manufactured. These include optical logic gates, optical switches, optical interconnections and optical memory.

Current trends in optical computing emphasize communications, for example the use of free space optical interconnects as a potential solution to remove experienced in electronic architectures. Optical technology is one of the most promising, and may eventually lead to new computing applications as a consequence of faster processing speed, as well as better connectivity and higher bandwidth


Not just a super car that carries on the name of racing driver Pierre Veyron, who, while racing for the original Bugatti car manufacturer, won the 24 hours of Le Mans in 1939, Bugatti Veyron 16.4 is the second fastest car in the world and the most powerful, it can easily pass as a super hero`s car like Batman. It has the fastest acceleration speed, reaching 60 mph in 2.6 seconds.

Endowed with W16 engine-16 cylinders in 4 banks of 4 cylinders fed by four turbochargers, a dual-clutch DSG computer-controlled manual transmission, the Veyron has a length is 4462 mm (175.8 in) a wide of 1998 mm (78.7 in) and hight of 1206 mm (47.5 in). Counting a sum of 10 radiators, for the engine cooling system, for transmission oil, a heat exchanger for the air to liquid intercoolers, for engine oil etc., the car has a power to weight ratio of 529 bhp/tonne.

If we talk about performance we are dazzled by this supercars power to reach 200 and 300 km/h (124 and 186 mph) in 7.3 and respectively 16.7 seconds, wining for herself the name of the quickest-accelerating production car in history. If we count the fact that the top speed of Bugatti Veyron is 253.2 miles per hour (407.5 km/h), a speed limited electronically to prevent tire damage (it can run even faster) we can understand why this spectacular car must consume 40.4 L/100 km (4.82 mpg) when it`s running at top speed and in city driving 24.1 L/100 km.
A model drove by superstars like Tom Cruise, couldn`t name itself cheap, rising the Bugatti Veyron at least of $1,700,000, a price that measures it`s quality. Many new designs has been released since 2006, the color might have changed, but the speed and power remain the same.

Cellular Digital Packet Data

Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) systems offer what is currently one of the most advanced means of wireless data transmission technology. Generally used as a tool for business, CDPD holds promises for improving law enforcement communications and operations. As technologies improve, CDPD may represent a major step toward making our nation a wireless information society. While CDPD technology is more complex than most of us care to understand, its potential benefits are obvious even to technological novices.
In this so-called age of information, no one need to be reminded of speed but also accuracy in the storage, retrieval and transmission of data. The CDPD network is a little one year old and already is proving to be a hot digital enhancement to the existing phone network. CDPD transmits digital packet data at 19.2 Kbps, using idle times between cellular voice calls on the cellular telephone network.                             
CDPD technology represent a way for law enforcement agencies to improve how they manage their communications and information systems. For over a decade, agencies around the world have been experimenting with placing Mobile Data Terminals(MDT) in their vehicles to enhance officer safety and efficiency.
Early MDT’s transmits their information using radio modems. In this case data could be lost in transmission during bad weather or when mobile units are not properly located in relation to transmission towers. More recently MDT’s have transmitted data using analog cellular telephone modems. This shift represented an improvement in mobile data communications, but systems still had flaws which limited their utility.
Since the mid-1990’s, computer manufacturers and the telecommunication industry have been experimenting with the use of digital cellular telecommunications as a wireless means to transmit data. The result of their effort is CDPD systems. These systems allow users to transmit data with a higher degree of accuracy, few service interruptions, and strong security. In addition CDPD technology represent a way for law enforcement agencies to improve how they manage their communications and information systems. This results in the capacity for mobile users to enjoy almost instantaneous access to information.


The explosive growth of both the wireless industry and the Internet is creating a huge market opportunity for wireless data access. Limited internet access, at very low speeds, is already available as an enhancement to some existing cellular systems. However those systems were designed with purpose of providing voice services and at most short messaging, but not fast data transfer. Traditional wireless technologies are not very well suited to meet the demanding requirements of providing very high data rates with the ubiquity, mobility and portability characteristics of cellular systems. Increased use of antenna arrays appears to be the only means of enabling the type of data rates and capacities needed for wireless internet and multimedia services. While the deployment of  base station arrays is becoming universal it is really the simultaneous deployment of base station and terminal arrays that can unleash unprecedented  levels of performance by opening up multiple spatial signaling dimensions .Theoretically, user data rates as high as 2 Mb/sec will be supported in certain environments, although recent studies have shown that approaching those might only be feasible under extremely favorable conditions-in the vicinity of the base station and with no other users competing for band width. Some fundamental barriers related to the nature of radio channel as well as to the limited band width availability at the frequencies of interest stand in the way of high data rates and low cost associated with wide access.

Cheapest Car Tracking System

The project includes the development of the software and hardware for a Micro controller based tracking system based on the technique “Dromography”. Here ‘dromos' means [way, street, route, corridor] + 'graphos' [to write], so Dromography is the study of geography and logistics of transportation, movement and communication routes. The digital dashboard will display the speed, distance traveled, engine temperature, mileage and fuel level of the vehicle. All the parameters are displayed in 16x1 LCD
Here the project comes under the embedded systems, which is the combination of software and hardware and perhaps some sensors, which are used to perform a specific tracing function. The project is done using Microchip’s Microcontroller PIC16F877. Micro controller programming is done using assembly language in Microchip’s integrated development environment MPLAB version 5.60
 The hardware part keeps monitoring the speed and the direction of the vehicle. The hardware sends the data to computer via serial port and track is plotted with the help of interface software. Again the hardware section can be divided in to microcontroller, input unit, output unit, and the display unit .The software section have the microcontroller coding and the user interface window programming. Using Visual Basic language the window is developed. The route is traced on this window. Some additional push buttons such as SAVE, LOAD and CLEAR are also provided to perform some useful tasks.
This project is very helpful to make a map to plot and retrace the route of a vehicle. And it also take care of displaying speed, distance, engine temperature and mileage. This is very useful method for town planning and road survey .Again these maps are also used to trace our position in the map. Being an independent gadget it works accurately with a high precision.
In this technological era many advanced tracking systems are available in market .Which are mostly based on Global Positioning System. But if anyone wants to enjoy these facilities, they have to pay a lot for the receiver and other service charges. Also there are many other limitations like geographical position of the place, satellite coverage etc, which affects the service.
Here the necessity comes to develop an efficient tracking system, with a least cost. The system should work effectively any ware, having user friendly interaction with the facility to store and load the data which are collected previously.

Biometric Technology

BIOMETRICS refers to  the automatic   identification of  a  person based   on    his physiological / behavioral  characteristics. This method of  identification is preferred for various reasons;the person to be identified is required to be physically present at the point of  identification; identification based on biometric techniques obviates the need to remember a password or carry a token. With the increased use of computers or  vehicles of  information technology, it is necessary to restrict access to sensitive or personal  data.  By  replacing PINs, biometric   techniques  can   potentially  prevent unauthorized access to fraudulent use of ATMs, cellular phones, smart cards, desktop PCs,  workstations, and computer networks. PINs  and passwords may be forgotten, and token based methods of  identification  like passports and driver’s  licenses  may be forged, stolen,  or lost .Thus biometric   systems  of   identification  are   enjoying a renewed interest. Various  types of biometric systems are being used  for real–time identification ; the most popular  are  based  on   face   recognition   and  fingerprint matching. However there are other biometric systems that utilize iris and retinal scan, speech,  facial  thermo grams, and hand geometry.
A  biometric  system  is  essentially  a pattern   recognition system,  which   makes  a personal identification by determining  the authenticity of a specific physiological or behavioral  characteristics possessed by the  user. An  important issue in designing a practical  system is to determine  how an  individual is  identified.  Depending on the context, a  biometric system can be either a verification (authentication) system or an  identification system. There  are  two  different  ways  to  resolve  a   person’s   identity :  Verification  and Identification. Verification  ( Am  I  whom I claim  I  am ?)   involves  confirming  or denying a person’s  claimed identity. In Identification one has to establish a person’s identity  (whom am  I?). Each one  of these approaches  has its own complexities and could probably be solved best by a certain biometric system.
Biometrics  is rapidly evolving technology, which is  being  used  in forensics such as criminal identification and prison security, and has the potential to be used in a large range of civilian application areas . Biometrics can be used transactions conducted via telephone and  Internet (electronic  commerce and  electronic banking) . In  automobiles, biometrics can replace keys with key -less entry devices