Biometric Fingerprint Identification

Posted on 1:54 AM by Admin

Positive identification of individuals is a very basic societal requirement. Reliable user authentication is becoming an increasingly important task in the web –enabled  world. The  consequences  of  an  insecure  authentication  system  in  a corporate or enterprise environment can be catastrophic, and may include loss of confidential information, denial of service, and compromised  data integrity. The value of  reliable user  authentication is  not limited to  just computer  or  network access. Many other applications in every day life also require user authentication, such as banking, e-commerce, and could benefit from enhanced security.
In fact, as more interactions take electronically, it becomes even more important to have an electronic verification of a person’s identity. Until recently, electronic verification took one of two forms. It was based on something the person had in their possession, like a magnetic swipe card, or something they knew, like a password. The problem is, these forms of electronic identification are not very secure, because they can be given away, taken away, or lost and motivated people have found ways to forge or circumvent these credentials.
The ultimate form of electronic verification of a person’s is biometrics. Biometrics refers to the automatic identification of a person based on his/her physiological or behavioral characteristics such as finger scan, retina, iris, voice scan, signature scan etc. By using this technique physiological characteristics of a person can be changed into electronic processes that are inexpensive and easy to use. People have always used the brain’s innate ability to recognize a familiar face and it has long been known that a person’s fingerprints can be used for identification.
A person’s identity can be resolved in two ways: identification and verification. The former involves identifying a person from all biometric measurements collected in a database and this involves a one-to-many match also referred to as ‘cold search’. “Do I know who you are”? is the inherent question this process seeks to answer. Verification involves authenticating a person’s claimed identity from his or her previously enrolled pattern and this involves a one to one match. The question it seeks to answer is, “Are you claim to be?”
Verification involves comparing a person’s fingerprint to one that pass previously recorded in the system database. The person claiming an identity provided a fingerprint, typically by placing on a capacitance scanner or an optical scanner. The computer locates the previous fingerprint by looking at the person’s identity. This process is relatively easy because the computer needs to compare two fingerprint records. The verification process is referred as a ‘closed search’ because the search field is limited. The second question is “who is this person?” This is the identification function, which is used to prevent duplicate application or enrollment. In this case a newly supplied fingerprint is supplied to all others in the database.  A match indicates that the person has already enrolled/applied.
The identification process, also known as an ‘open search’, is much more technically demanding. It involves many more comparisons and may require differentiating among several database fingerprints that are similar to the objects.

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